Diabetes sometimes decreases estrogen levels in females, which can affect vaginal lubrication. Less is known about the correlation between diabetes and sexual dysfunction in females than in males. Oral contraceptive pills can cause blood sugar imbalances in women who have diabetes. Dosage changes can help address that, at the risk of side effects and complications.
Women with type 1 diabetes show a higher than normal rate of polycystic ovarian syndrome PCOS.
Rates vary widely by country. In Finland, the incidence is a high of 57 per , per year, in Japan and China a low of 1 to 3 per , per year, and in Northern Europe and the U. In the United States, type 1 diabetes affected about , youths under the age of 20 in Over 18, youths are diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes every year. Every year about , Americans die due to diabetes type I or II or diabetes-related complications, with 69, having it as the primary cause of death. In Australia, about one million people have been diagnosed with diabetes and of this figure , people have been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.
Australia ranks 6th-highest in the world with children under 14 years of age. Between and , 31, new cases were established, with 2, in , a rate of 10—13 cases per ,00 people each year. Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islander people are less affected. Type 1 diabetes was described as an autoimmune disease in the s, based on observations that autoantibodies against islets were discovered in diabetics with other autoimmune deficiencies. Individuals diagnosed with diabetes have 2. One in ten health care dollars are spent on individuals with type 1 and 2 diabetes.
Funding for research into type 1 diabetes originates from government, industry e. The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation JDRF , founded by parents of children with type 1 diabetes, is the world's largest provider of charity-based funding for type 1 diabetes research. A number of approaches have been explored to understand causes and provide treatments for type 1. Data suggest that gliadin a protein present in gluten might play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Gene therapy has also been proposed as a possible cure for type 1 diabetes.
Diabetes : Diabetes And Diabetes
Pluripotent stem cells can be used to generate beta cells but previously these cells did not function as well as normal beta cells. Vaccines are being looked at to treat or prevent type 1 diabetes by inducing immune tolerance to insulin or pancreatic beta cells. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Form of diabetes mellitus.
Main article: Genetic causes of type 1 diabetes. See also: Glycated hemoglobin and Glucose tolerance test. Further information: Diabetes management. Main article: Insulin therapy. Main article: Pancreas transplantation. Main article: Islet cell transplantation. Further information: Complications of diabetes. Further information: History of diabetes. See also: List of people with type 1 diabetes.
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August Archived from the original on 10 August Retrieved 31 July February Archived from the original on 16 August International Diabetes Federation. Archived from the original on 5 August November Archived from the original on 26 August Retrieved 29 May Diabetes Care. May July American Diabetes Association. Archived from the original on 16 December Retrieved 25 July World Health Organization. Archived PDF from the original on 7 October Atlas of diabetes 4th ed.
New York: Springer. Archived from the original on 8 September Pediatric Emergency Care. Archived from the original on 23 June Journal of Affective Disorders. Nature Reviews. Coeliac disease in T1DM is asymptomatic Springer International Publishing. Oxford Handbook of Endocrinology and Diabetes.
Oxford University Press. IDDM Ncbi. Archived from the original on 8 August Retrieved 29 November Williams Textbook of Endocrinology.
Elsevier Health Sciences. Bibcode : Natur. Annals of Medicine. Lancet Review. Journal of Food Protection. Environmental Health Perspectives Review.
National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 4 July Hormone and Metabolic Research. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity. Geneva: World Health Organization.
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Annals of Internal Medicine. Archived PDF from the original on 8 March Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 29 January Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 24 January Archived from the original on 29 September Archived from the original on 22 January A hypothesis". Pediatric Diabetes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench Review. Retrieved 1 November There is limited evidence to support their routine use in the management of Type 1 diabetes.
Current Pediatrics Reports. Archived from the original on 12 November Retrieved 11 November Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders. Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 10 February Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism.
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Annals of Biomedical Engineering. Archived from the original on 15 July Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. The Lancet. Current Urology Reports. Diabetes Digital Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 28 November Pharmacognosy Magazine. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.
Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Archived from the original PDF on 29 April Archived from the original on 7 October Retrieved 19 October USA Today. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 1 July Diabetologia Review. Nature Immunology. It differs from other oral hypoglycemic drugs ie more effective during eating than during fasting. Over the year controlled drug delivery technology has a wide advances.
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Due to its high potential a bioadhesive system place a major role in controlling drug release. Mucoadhesive system prolong the residence time of the dosage form at the site of application or absorption and facilitate an therapeutic performance of the drug. Recent interest has been expressed in the delivery of drug via mucus membrane by the use of adhesive materials on which studies are been intensively undertaken. Glipizide is an oral antidiabetic drug, belonging to the sulphonylurea group. Presently the drug is marketed in conventional dosage form of tablet in usual strength of 2.
Hence there is need of the alternative route administration to avoid first pass hepatic metabolism. Physicochemical properties of this drug like small dose, lipophilicity, stability at buccal pH, odourlessness, tastelessness, low molecular weight etc.