As iron-deficiency anemia becomes more severe, if the anemia does not respond to oral treatments, or if the treated person does not tolerate oral iron supplementation, then other measures may become necessary. Intravenous iron can induce an allergic response that can be as serious as anaphylaxis , although different formulations have decreased the likelihood of this adverse effect. A map provides a country-by-country listing of what nutrients are fortified into specified foods.
Some of the Sub-Saharan countries shown in the deaths from iron-deficiency anemia map from are as of fortifying foods with iron.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Iron-deficiency anemia Other names Iron-deficiency anaemia Red blood cells Specialty Hematology Symptoms Feeling tired , weakness, shortness of breath , confusion, pallor  Complications Heart failure , arrhythmias , frequent infections  Causes Iron deficiency  Diagnostic method Blood tests  Treatment Dietary changes, medications, surgery  Medication Iron supplements , vitamin C , blood transfusions  Frequency 1. Irritability Angina chest pain Palpitations feeling that the heart is skipping beats or fluttering Breathlessness Tingling, numbness , or burning sensations Glossitis inflammation or infection of the tongue Angular cheilitis inflammatory lesions at the mouth's corners Koilonychia spoon-shaped nails or nails that are brittle Poor appetite Dysphagia difficulty swallowing due to formation of esophageal webs Plummer-Vinson syndrome Restless legs syndrome .
See also: Iron deficiency and Lucky iron fish. Emergency Medicine Practice. Archived from the original on 5 July Retrieved 17 July Archived from the original on 16 July Archived from the original on 15 July Archived from the original on 28 July Archived from the original on 14 July Archived from the original on 13 July Office of Dietary Supplements. Retrieved 11 December The Vitamins. Academic Press. Archived from the original on Conn's Current Therapy. Philadelphia: Elsevier. Retrieved Goldman-Cecil Medicine. Ferri's Clinical Advisor Sleep Medicine.
Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Pediatric Secrets. Haematology: An Illustrated Colour Text. Australian Prescriber.
Tarek Elghetany, Katherine I. Schexneider and Katalin Banki Courtney; Mason, Robert; Ernst, Joel; et al. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. Iron Deficiency and Overload in Williams Hematology 9th ed. Mayo Clinic.
Focus on Iron-Deficiency Anemia
Food Fortification Initiative. Retrieved 12 December March 4, Archived from the original on November 27, Retrieved December 11, Ann Nutr Metab. National Academy Press. European Food Safety Authority. Shackelford's Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. Blood and Bone Marrow Pathology.
Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. American Academy of Pediatrics textbook of pediatric care. McInerny, Thomas K. Accessed November 30, Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 20th ed.
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Effect of Iron Deficiency Anaemia on Haemoglobin A1c Levels
Archived from the original on 8 May J Gen Intern Med. Low EPO levels, especially when accompanied by poor iron status, are predictive of rapid loss of renal function. Vegetarians consume diary and eggs while vegans do not consume or use any animal derived products. Vegetarians have a low risk of deficiency except for iron deficiency with anemia in pre-menopausal women.
Vegans should receive a mandatory vitamin B12 substitution because of an important risk of deficiency. Furthermore, vegans are at higher risk of iron and calcium deficiency with higher rates of osteoporotic fracture and iron deficiency anemia. Dietary advice is recommended, particularly for vegans, even though no clear recommendations can be found in the literature.
These diets seem to be associated with a reduction in cardio-vascular risk factors, but this association remains to be confirmed. Evaluation and treatment of iron deficiency, with or without anemia, in enhanced recovery after bariatric surgery. This study assessed the efficacy of intraoperative high-dose intravenous iron therapy in facilitating recovery from postoperative anemia and reducing the transfusion rate in patients with total knee and total hip arthroplasty.
This prospective randomized controlled study involved 58 subjects. Group F received mg intravenous ferric carboxymaltose and Group C received normal saline. There were 29 patients of each group. The change in Hb levels from baseline to 1 month post-surgery was higher in Group F than in Group C 0. This study suggests that intraoperative high-dose ferric carboxymaltose during lower limb total arthroplasty can facilitate the recovery from postoperative anemia. Although it could not prevent the occurrence of postoperative anemia or the administration of transfusion, this treatment seemed to overcome surgery-related decrease of iron availability.
Iron is vital for a vast variety of cellular processes and its homeostasis is strictly controlled and regulated. Nevertheless, disorders of iron metabolism are diverse and can be caused by insufficiency, overload or iron mal-distribution in tissues. Some limitations are inherent in the present research.
First, no causal associations could be established between the influencing factors and personal IDA due to the cross-sectional nature of the study.
Iron-deficiency anemia - Wikipedia
Second, the student participants who formed the study sample were all volunteers, so they may not be taken to represent the wider female student population in Saudi Arabia. However, this potential limitation was minimized in the study by checking with each participant that they regarded their dietary intake on the day prior to the study as typical. This study found an overall prevalence of IDA among its sample of apparently healthy young Saudi female university students of The study also reported that the main risk factors in relation to contracting anemia were inadequate intakes of iron and vitamin C, frequent tea consumption, infrequent red meat consumption, and a past personal history of IDA.
The findings presented here suggest a need for focused education and awareness strategies designed to improve nutritional habits by encouraging the consumption of rich sources of iron in the diet eg, red meat , as well as by building understanding of which food and beverages can improve eg, vitamin C—rich foods and hinder eg, polyphenol-rich beverages, such as tea iron bioavailability.
The current work has set a benchmark for possible future research in the form of randomized trials which would help to build greater understanding of this health issue and would also support the development of a strong and suitable public health policy which can efficiently tackle IDA. The authors of this study would like to thank all the students who participated in the research for agreeing to do so.
They are also grateful to the team who offered their assistance in collecting the data. RAA was responsible for the data analyses and the drafting of the manuscript, and OA-A was responsible for the study protocol and fieldwork. Both authors contributed to the interpretation of the results and approved the final manuscript.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Clin Med Insights Womens Health. Published online Dec 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Email: as. Received Jul 18; Accepted Oct This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Results: The IDA prevalence was Conclusions: The findings suggest that focused education and awareness strategies are needed to improve nutritional habits by encouraging the consumption of rich dietary iron sources and by raising awareness of the food and drinks which facilitate or hinder the bioavailability of iron.
Keywords: Iron deficiency anemia, prevalence, risk factors, female university students, Saudi Arabia. Introduction Anemia is a worldwide public health issue affecting approximately 1. Data collection The present research was conducted on the campus of the University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. Interview questionnaire Each participant was interviewed to complete the structured questionnaire which had been developed by the researchers based on the large body of relevant prior literature to meet the objectives of the research.