In Vietnam also established a nautical-mile Exclusive Economic Zone. The other ASEAN members involved in the dispute present conflicting claims which are limited to specific parts of the Spratly archipelago and tend to rely on International Law, including the extension of the continental shelf, rather than on historical arguments. Among the member states, the Philippines claims the largest area of the Spratly — Kalayaan.
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First officially proclaimed in, the presidential decree of the Philippines declared Kalayaan as part of the national territory. The Philippines also established a nautical-mile EEZ. Malaysia extended its continental shelf in and included features of the Spratly in its territory. Brunei then established in an exclusive economic zone of nautical miles that extends to the south of the Spratly Islands and comprises Louisa Reef.
Indonesia who is not a party to the Spratly dispute and was neutral in the South China Sea issue until , became one of the claimants because of the suspected extension of Chinese claims to the waters about the Natuna gas fields currently exploited by Indonesia.
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The causes of conflicts were of legal and economic origins. In regard of legal origins, there are two laws and practices on which all the claimant based upon. With the rectification of the UNCLOS, some claimants may have misused it to extend their sovereign jurisdiction unilaterally and justify their claims in the South China Sea. The economic cause of the dispute is the estimate of large reserves of oil and natural gas as well as the fishery right. All the claimants based their claims on the ground of modern international laws, while historical evidences are also used.
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China bases its claim primarily on historical background. According to Chinese history, Spratley and Paracel islands were first discovered by the Chinese, some Chinese historical document describes the area as Chinese territory since as early as AC. However, its continuous control of the disputed area was interrupted in modern history. Chinese considers itself as a victim of the aggressions of imperialism and the conflict between superpowers, which deprives it of its historical claims. Under the current international law, China will be hard to defend its claims, thus has refrained from using legal terminology to specify its demands.
On the other hand, the Chinese Congress passed a law to claim the territorial water.
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Vietnam also sees the region as a historical territory as the China. However, Vietnam acknowledged Chinese sovereignty over the disputed islands during its war with France and the U. Therefore, its claim is primary on legal ground. The Philippines bases its claim on the continental shelf. It also tries to base its claims on historical arguments. But the claims are too modern comparing to the historical claims made by China and Vietnam. The Philippines never claimed the main island of Spratley which is outside the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Philippines.
Indonesia claims neither the Spratly nor the Paracel Islands. Brunei has not officially made claims neither to any reef nor to any of the Spratly islands. A discussion on the dispute of the South China Sea should be made with China as the starting point with two reasons. Second is that China is involved in most of the disputes. The disputes after s can be divided into 3 phases.
The first phase was between s and early s when claimant countries adopted various measures to conquer or control islands and rocks in questions. The most sever military conflict took place between China and Vietnam in the s. The period between s and early s was characterised with constant military conflict because of lack of communications and trust among claimants.
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On the other hand, the Cold War prevented those conflicts to escalate to larger scale wars. The proposal was acknowledged by other claimants, but all claimants did not cease the conquering. Military conflicts decreased dramatically between claimants. However, noticeable change of policies of Vietnam and the Philippines toward China took place. With the fall of Soviet Union and lose of its support from the Soviet Union, the Vietnamese government started to improve and normalize its relations with China.
The Great Leap Forward programme is said to be an economic failure, as it did not meet its initial aims. The changes that were to be made were too sudden and the lack of expert knowledge was too great. There was poor weather from , causing a massive famine, which saw a total of 25 million deaths. Much …show more content….
To what extent would you agree with this statement? Explain you answer. I agree with the above statement to a large extent. To carry out the Great Leap Forward, the government had to persuade people to join communes by a tremendous propaganda campaign but by , all of China was organised into 26 communes.
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From contextual knowledge, we know that life in the commune then was very hard. The members of the commune were not allowed to have any private possessions at all. They all received the same wages. Even families were broken up to ensure that all who could work did so. Thus, one can imagine the great discontentment among the people then. However, note that despite all the hardship, there is no mention of any uprising by the people during this period of time.
It is said that perhaps the communes have broken down the Chinese people's resistance to change. In , Mao launched the "Hundred Flowers" campaign. This invited criticism from anyone. Finding content on the Internet is really easy and you can be exposed to it in a click of a button. Censorship would block this content out and reduce the people who will be influenced by this and this may reduce the crimes of what the people commit. In this scenario I think censorship is a good aspect as it can reduce a lot of problems and make the country a safer environment, which a lot links to the concept of projecting children.
Inappropriate TV programmes should be censored if they are broadcasted before Watershed this is so young children do not watch these TV 2. Evidently what my point is coming to that in my opinion the main aspect to Censorship is to protect children to content that they should not be exposed to at such a young age. Censorship in some circumstances is not needed.
In one circumstance books have been banned because they have been too inappropriate. For example Naked Lunch by William S. Burroughs, this book was banned because it contained obscene language and controversial matters. I do not think this booked should have banned in this case. If an adult wants to read the book and they have no problem with what the book contains then it should be their decision whether to read it or not.
An adult should be able to make their own decisions on whether they want to read that type of material. Some people like to read controversial material for example 50 shades of Grey is a very popular book which has been a best seller in the UK. People may see this as having an explicit nature. In this circumstanced I think it is wrong that books are banned. Adults are en charge of themselves and it they want to explore the explicit content that the books have it should be their choice into what they read.
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Within this scenario religious schools will not allow the children to know the story of the big bang and how the earth started scientifically. They will only teach the bible way. I think concerning the education this wrong because children should be taught both ways and be lead to make their own decision on what they believe in. Using censorship to hide theories from children in wrong in this aspect and it should not be done.
In America the states of Utah, Alabama, Texas and Mississippi theses are very religious states, which the schools cannot be taught the evolution theory but are only taught the creation theory. The world we live in now the Internet is used everyday by billions of people. The Internet can be very dodgy as it contains material that lots people do not want to come into contact with such as porn, gambling, violence, indecent images and videos etc… because of this the internet should have censorship to protect people from the harmful content that it contains.
Blocks should be put on porn sites and other nasty sites that contain content which is indecent. This platform of media is the most dangerous and therefore should contain censorship to stop the harmful content reaching people and reaching children who are just browsing the net. Internet censorship in China is conducted under a wide variety of laws and administrative regulations.
In accordance with these laws, the government of China has made more than sixty Internet regulations to put the Internet censorship in action. The Internet control in China has been seen as the most extensive and advanced then any other countries in the world. In my opinion I think this is a good idea that the government monitor the Internet in a strict way because in the UK the Internet does get monitored as strictly as China.
ns2.yepi10games.org/anuncios-de-sexo-en-mallorca.php It gets monitored as if you put the wrong kind of words in then you will come up on the censorship and you will be monitored closer than you was before. In my opinion I think that the UK should take a stricter approach like china to the Internet and ban more websites that have explicit content on. This would protect children from accessing these sites and would stop a lot more wrong doings on the Internet. Comparing the censorship over the Internet between The UK and China the UK are a lot more lenient with what people can view on the internet.
An article in the Huffington post suggests that David Cameron is offering an opt out version to Internet censorship in the UK.